North Korea sanctions – resolution 1718 (2006)
The sanctions measures:
The sanctions measures have accumulated over a ten-year period, beginning with
Resolution 1718 (2006) applying a limited embargo on arms and WMD-related material as well as an asset freeze and travel ban for individuals and entities involved in the DPRK’s nuclear program.
Resolution 1874 (2009) expanded the list of embargoed conventional arms, exempting only small arms and light weapons. It also banned financial services benefitting the proliferation project.
Resolution 2087 (2013) further expanded the embargo to include a mandate for the seizure and destruction of any materials suspected to be destined or connected with the DPRK’s proliferation research and development efforts, enhanced the definition of the catch-all provision, and includes as a criterion for designation for targeted sanctions, such individuals who assist in the evasion or violation of sanctions.
Resolution 2094 (2013) expanded the definition of embargoed items related to technologies for nuclear and other WMD as well as ballistic missiles. The resolution further expanded the list of luxury items that are banned for export to the DPRK.
And finally with Resolution 2270 (2016) the current regime encompasses:
– General, two-way embargo on small and heavy arms, as well as related material, and equipment, goods and technology related to nuclear weapons, ballistic missiles and other types of WMD, all correlated financial transactions and services, technical training, advice, services or assistance connected to the provision, manufacture, maintenance or use of such arms and material;
– General, two-way embargo on all trade, except food or medicine, and contingent on reasons to assume that trade may contribute to the development of the DPRK’s operational capabilities of its armed forces or that of another state’s;
– Diplomatic sanctions against all DPRK representatives and any other foreign individuals that are found violating or evading sanctions under the 1718 regime, with specific exceptions noted, that results in expulsion and repatriation;
– Educational sanctions on the teaching of advanced physics, computer simulations and sciences, geospatial navigation, nuclear, aerospace and aeronautical engineering and related disciplines for all DPRK national who could contribute to the DPRK’s proliferation program;
– Sanctions authorizing all states to inspect all cargo transiting through their territories, airports, seaports, free trade zones that has originated in or destined r to the DPRK, that is brokered or otherwise facilitated by DPRK individuals and their foreign agents, or transported on aircraft or maritime vessels operating under the DPRK flag;
– Sanctions against leasing, chartering, or crewing vessels and aircrafts to the DPRK, foreign agents or designated individuals and entities; as well as a general prohibition against the registration, flagging, certification, or insuring of any vessels in the DPRK; as well the operation of aircrafts, including permission to take off, land, or overfly the DPRK and the entry of maritime vessels into a port if reason exists that it is operated, owned, or controlled by a designated individual or entity;
– Embargo on the supply, sale, or transfer of any coal, iron, iron ore – with exceptions noted for supplies exported from the Port of Rajin – gold, titanium ore, vanadium ore, rare earth, all aviation and rocket fuel, kerosene-type jet and rocket fuel, except supplies for essential humanitarian need as approved in advance by the Committee, and for civilian flights servicing destinations in the DPRK;
– Assets, funds, economic resources outside of the DPRK owned or controlled by entities of the Government of the DPRK, the Worker’s Party of Korea, their agents that are determined to be associated with the DPRK’s WMD program;
– Sanctions prohibiting the operation or opening of new branches, subsidiaries and representations of DPRK banks, the establishing of correspondent services, or bank accounts and directing all States to close all financial institutions and services, including export credits, guarantees or insurances where they are believed to support DPRK proliferation;
– On all designated individuals a travel ban and individual asset freeze are applied.
– Sanctions prohibiting the export to the DPRK of luxury goods.
Trigger for sanctions regime
DPRK withdrew from the NPT in 2003, and test-fired two explosive nuclear devices and several intermediate and long-range missiles. In 2013, it conducted an additional underground test explosion of a nuclear device.
Objective of sanctions regime
Coerce the DPRK to comply with the NPT, by dismantling and abandoning its WMD program
Chair of the Sanctions Committee:RománOyarzunMarchesi, Permanent Representative of Spain
Vice-Chairs of the Sanctions Committee:Permanent Representatives of Chad and Jordan
Panel of Experts:Mr. Hugh Griffiths, Coordinator and expert on air transport (United Kingdom of Great Britain andNorthern Ireland); Mr. BenoîtCamguilhem, expert on missile technology (France); Mr. Katsuhisa Furukawa, expert on nuclear issues (Japan); Mr. Dmitry Kiku, expert on customs and export controls (Russian Federation); Mr. Youngwan Kim, expert on weapons of mass destruction arms control and non-proliferation policy (Republic of Korea); Ms. Stephanie Kleine-Ahlbrandt, expert on finance (United States of America); Mr. Neil Watts, expert on maritime transport (South Africa); Mr. JiahuZong, expert on other weapons of mass destruction and conventional arms (China)